How to convert a DataFrame to a MongoDB document (Pandas + PyMongo)

Updated: February 20, 2024 By: Guest Contributor Post a comment


Combining the power of Pandas for data manipulation with PyMongo to interact with MongoDB can significantly streamline the process of data analysis and storage. This tutorial seeks to provide a comprehensive guide on how to convert a DataFrame into a MongoDB document using these two powerful libraries.


  • Basic knowledge of Python
  • An understanding of Pandas DataFrames
  • Familiarity with MongoDB and its basic operations
  • Python 3 installed with pandas and PyMongo libraries

Step-by-Step Instructions

Step 1: Setting up Your Environment

First, you need to ensure you have Pandas and PyMongo installed. You can install these packages using pip:

pip install pandas pymongo

After installation, import the necessary libraries in your Python script.

import pandas as pd
import pymongo
from pymongo import MongoClient

Step 2: Creating a DataFrame

Let’s start by creating a simple DataFrame. This will serve as our data source which we will eventually insert into MongoDB.

import pandas as pd
data = {'Name': ['John', 'Anna', 'Mike', 'Emma'],
'Age': [28, 34, 23, 41],
'City': ['New York', 'Paris', 'Berlin', 'London']}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)

Here’s the DataFrame output:

    Name  Age      City
0 John 28 New York
1 Anna 34 Paris
2 Mike 23 Berlin
3 Emma 41 London

Step 3: Connecting to MongoDB

Before proceeding, ensure you have a running instance of MongoDB. You can connect to your MongoDB database using MongoClient from PyMongo.

client = MongoClient('mongodb://localhost:27017/')
db = client['your_database_name']
collection = db['your_collection_name']

Replace ‘your_database_name’ and ‘your_collection_name’ with the appropriate names for your database and collection.

Step 4: Converting DataFrame to Dictionary

To insert the DataFrame into MongoDB, we need to convert it into a format that MongoDB can understand, i.e., a dictionary. pandas offers an easy way to do this.

data_dict = df.to_dict('records')

This will transform the DataFrame into a list of dictionaries, with each dictionary representing a row in the DataFrame.

Step 5: Inserting Data into MongoDB

Now that we have our data in the right format, we can insert it into MongoDB using the insert_many() function.


This function will insert each dictionary in the list as a separate document in the collection.

Advanced Operations

Ensuring DataFrame Index as MongoDB Document ID

Sometimes, it might be beneficial to use the DataFrame’s index as the MongoDB document ID. This can be achieved by adding the index to the dictionary before conversion.

df_dict = df.to_dict('records')

This ensures that the DataFrame’s index is included in the document, which can now serve as a unique identifier in MongoDB.

Filtering and Updating MongoDB Documents

After inserting data into MongoDB, you might want to update or filter documents. PyMongo makes this simple with its update and find methods.

# Updating a document
collection.update_one({'Name': 'John'}, {'$set': {'Age': 29}})

# Filtering documents
for doc in collection.find({'City': 'New York'}):

This showcases how to update the age for ‘John’ and filter all documents wherein the city is ‘New York’.


Converting a DataFrame into a MongoDB document using Pandas and PyMongo facilitates a smooth workflow for data manipulation and storage. With a strong understanding of these processes, you can efficiently manage and analyze data within a MongoDB database.