Mongoose: Find Documents Between Two Dates (Inclusive)

Updated: December 30, 2023 By: Guest Contributor Post a comment


Mongoose is a powerful Object Data Modelling (ODM) library for MongoDB and Node.js that provides a straightforward, schema-based solution to model your application data. In this tutorial, we will learn how to query documents based on date ranges, which is a common requirement for applications dealing with time-sensitive records. We will cover techniques for finding documents between two dates inclusively using Mongoose, starting with basic queries and progressively moving towards more complex scenarios.

Working with dates in MongoDB can be challenging, especially if you’re not familiar with JavaScript’s Date object or MongoDB’s ISODate. However, Mongoose simplifies the process with its abstraction layer, allowing you to handle date queries efficiently. We will begin by setting up a simple Mongoose schema and then dive into creating queries to fetch records between two specific dates.

Before getting started, make sure you have:

  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript/Node.js programming
  • An existing Node.js environment
  • Knowledge of MongoDB and Mongoose
  • A MongoDB database setup

Example Schema Setup

Before querying your documents, you must first define a schema with Mongoose that includes a date field. Below is an example schema with a simple blog post model:

import mongoose from 'mongoose';
const Schema = mongoose.Schema;

const blogPostSchema = new Schema({
  title: String,
  content: String,
  createdAt: { type: Date, default: }

const BlogPost = mongoose.model('BlogPost', blogPostSchema);

Basic Date Range Query

Now let’s perform a basic query to find blog posts created between two dates. We’ll use the greater than or equal (\$gte) and less than or equal (\$lte) operators provided by MongoDB to define the range:

const start = new Date('2023-01-01');
const end = new Date('2023-01-31');

  createdAt: { \$gte: start, \$lte: end }
  .then(posts => {
    console.log('Posts between the specified dates:', posts);
  .catch(err => {
    console.error('Error fetching posts:', err);

Advanced Queries with Aggregation

If you need to perform more sophisticated queries that combine multiple conditions, aggregate functions, or transformations, you can use the Mongoose aggregation pipeline. The following example shows how to retrieve the number of blog posts created on each day within a date range:

  { \$match: {
    createdAt: { \$gte: start, \$lte: end }
  } },
  { \$group: {
    _id: { \$dateToString: { format: "%Y-%m-%d", date: "$createdAt" } },
    count: { \$sum: 1 }
  } }
  .then(results => {
    console.log('Post count by date:', results);
  .catch(err => {
    console.error('Error running aggregation:', err);

Handling Time Zones

Time zones can introduce complexities into date range queries. A common practice is to store dates in UTC and perform conversions where necessary. Here’s an example of taking into account the user’s local time zone when querying:

// The timezone offset in minutes for converting to UTC
const timezoneOffset = -new Date().getTimezoneOffset();
const start = new Date(new Date('2023-01-01').getTime() + timezoneOffset * 60000);
const end = new Date(new Date('2023-01-31').getTime() + timezoneOffset * 60000);

// Query taking the user's timezone into account
  createdAt: { \$gte: start.toISOString(), \$lte: end.toISOString() }

Querying with the Moment.js Library

Although native JavaScript Date objects are capable, using libraries like Moment.js can give you more flexibility and convenience. Working with moment.js may be unnecessary for new projects considering its maintenance status, but it’s widely used in many existing codebases. With Moment.js, creating date ranges becomes simpler:

import moment from 'moment';

const start = moment('2023-01-01').startOf('day').toDate();
const end = moment('2023-01-31').endOf('day').toDate();

  createdAt: { \$gte: start, \$lte: end }

Performance Considerations

When working with large collections, it’s important to have your date fields properly indexed to optimize your queries. An index can dramatically speed up the querying of date ranges at the cost of some additional storage and write performance. The following shows you how to index a date field:

blogPostSchema.index({ createdAt: 1 });

Final Words

In this tutorial, we have explored several ways to query documents between two dates using Mongoose and MongoDB. Starting with basic approaches to leveraging advanced aggregation features, we saw how to handle complex querying needs including taking time zones into consideration. Optimizing these queries with indexing is essential for performance, particularly in production environments with large datasets. Finally, it’s important to remember to use comprehensive testing to ensure your queries behave as expected before deploying to production.

The examples provided should give you a solid foundation to build upon for your applications’ specific date querying needs. With Mongoose as your ODM, querying, and managing date-based data in MongoDB remains a well-structured, developer-friendly process.