NestJS & MongoDB: A Simple CRUD Example

Updated: January 1, 2024 By: Guest Contributor Post a comment


NestJS, a progressive Node.js framework for building efficient and scalable server-side applications, pairs well with MongoDB for managing data. This tutorial will walk you through setting up a simple CRUD application using NestJS with MongoDB.

Setting Up Your Project

First, ensure you have Node.js installed. Then, install the Nest CLI:

npm i -g @nestjs/cli

Create a new NestJS project:

nest new nestjs-mongodb-crud

Once the installation is complete, change into your new project directory:

cd nestjs-mongodb-crud

Installing Dependencies

Install necessary packages for MongoDB:

npm install --save @nestjs/mongoose mongoose

Connecting to MongoDB

In your app.module.ts, import MongooseModule and set up the connection:

import { Module } from '@nestjs/common';
import { MongooseModule } from '@nestjs/mongoose';

  imports: [
  controllers: [],
  providers: [],
export class AppModule {}

Replace the connection string with your MongoDB URI if necessary.

Creating a Schema

Create a schema that reflects the structure of the data in MongoDB. For instance, if you’re managing a list of tasks, here’s how a task schema might look.

import * as mongoose from 'mongoose';

export const TaskSchema = new mongoose.Schema({
  title: String,
  description: String,
  completed: Boolean,

Defining a Model

With the schema ready, let’s define the model in a service file:

import { Injectable } from '@nestjs/common';
import { InjectModel } from '@nestjs/mongoose';
import { Model } from 'mongoose';
import { Task, TaskDocument } from './schemas/task.schema';

export class TasksService {
  constructor(@InjectModel( private taskModel: Model<TaskDocument>) {}

  // CRUD methods to be added here

Implementing CRUD Operations

Let’s implement the typical CRUD operations: Create, Read (one and all), Update, and Delete for a tasks resource.

Create Operation

async create(createTaskDto: CreateTaskDto): Promise<Task> {
  const createdTask = new this.taskModel(createTaskDto);

Read Operations

async findAll(): Promise<Task[]> {
  return this.taskModel.find().exec();

async findOne(id: string): Promise<Task> {
  return this.taskModel.findById(id).exec();

Update Operation

async update(id: string, updateTaskDto: UpdateTaskDto): Promise<Task> {
  return this.taskModel.findByIdAndUpdate(
    { new: true }

Delete Operation

async delete(id: string): Promise<any> {
  return this.taskModel.findByIdAndRemove(id).exec();

Creating the Controller

Controllers handle incoming HTTP requests and invoke the correct service method. Below is an example of a controller with all the CRUD endpoints:

import { Controller, Get, Post, Put, Delete, Body, Param } from '@nestjs/common';
import { TasksService } from './tasks.service';
import { CreateTaskDto, UpdateTaskDto } from './dto';

export class TasksController {
  constructor(private tasksService: TasksService) {}

  create(@Body() createTaskDto: CreateTaskDto) {
    return this.tasksService.create(createTaskDto);

  findAll() {
    return this.tasksService.findAll();

  findOne(@Param('id') id: string) {
    return this.tasksService.findOne(id);

  update(@Param('id') id: string, @Body() updateTaskDto: UpdateTaskDto) {
    return this.tasksService.update(id, updateTaskDto);

  delete(@Param('id') id: string) {
    return this.tasksService.delete(id);

Error Handling and Validation

Use pipes for data validation and proper error handling. The ValidationPipe can be used out-of-the-box to validate DTOs against defined class-validator decorators.

import { BadRequestException, PipeTransform, Injectable } from '@nestjs/common';
import { ObjectSchema } from 'joi';

export class JoiValidationPipe implements PipeTransform {
  constructor(private schema: ObjectSchema) {}

  transform(value: any) {
    const { error } = this.schema.validate(value);
    if (error) {
      throw new BadRequestException('Validation failed');
    return value;


You now have a simple CRUD API using NestJS and MongoDB. This tutorial covered everything from setting up the project, connecting to MongoDB, defining schemas and models, to implementing CRUD operations and basic validation. Keep exploring and expanding on this foundation for more complex applications.