Pandas DataFrame: Calculate the product of each group (3 examples)

Updated: February 24, 2024 By: Guest Contributor Post a comment


Pandas is a powerful tool for data analysis and manipulation in Python. One common operation is grouping data and calculating aggregate statistics, such as the sum, mean, or in this case, the product of groups. This tutorial covers how to calculate the product of each group in a Pandas DataFrame using three different examples, ranging from basic to more advanced scenarios.

Understanding GroupBy in Pandas

Before we dive into calculating the product of each group, it’s essential to understand the GroupBy operation. Pandas DataFrame.groupby() method is used to split the data into groups based on some criteria. Once we have these groups, we can apply a function to each group independently. The function can be an aggregation, transformation, or filtration function, allowing for sophisticated data manipulation.

Example 1: Basic Group Product

In our first example, we will start simple by grouping a DataFrame based on a single column and then calculating the product of these groups for a specific column.

import pandas as pd

df = pd.DataFrame({'Category': ['A', 'B', 'A', 'B', 'C', 'C', 'C'],
                   'Values': [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]})

grouped = df.groupby('Category')['Values'].prod()


A     8
B    15
C   336
Name: Values, dtype: int64

This output shows the product of values in each category, demonstrating the basic usage of the .prod() method within grouped data.

Example 2: Multi-Level Grouping

Moving to a slightly more complex scenario, let’s consider multi-level grouping. In this case, we group our DataFrame by more than one column and calculate the product for each subgroup.

import pandas as pd

df = pd.DataFrame({'Year': [2020, 2020, 2021, 2021],
                   'Category': ['A', 'B', 'A', 'B'],
                   'Values': [2, 3, 4, 5]})

multi_grouped = df.groupby(['Year', 'Category'])['Values'].prod()


Year  Category
2020  A           2
      B           3
2021  A           4
      B           5
Name: Values, dtype: int64

This output highlights the products for each combination of ‘Year’ and ‘Category’, showcasing the capability of Pandas to handle multi-level groupings and perform group-specific calculations.

Example 3: Advanced Grouping with Custom Functions

For our final example, we dive into a more advanced scenario where we apply custom functions after grouping. This example shows how to flexibly manipulate grouped data to fit specific needs. Here, we’ll group the DataFrame as before but use a custom function to calculate the product, including an additional operation.

import pandas as pd

def complicated_product(group):
    return ( - 1) * 2

df = pd.DataFrame({'Category': ['A', 'B', 'A', 'B', 'C', 'C', 'C'],
                   'Values': [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]})

custom_grouped = df.groupby('Category')['Values'].apply(complicated_product)


A      14
B      28
C    671
Name: Values, dtype: int64

This example demonstrates the flexibility of the grouping mechanism in Pandas, allowing for complex calculations using custom functions. This technique is powerful when the built-in aggregation functions aren’t sufficient for your needs.


Calculating the product of each group in a Pandas DataFrame is straightforward using the .prod() method. Through the examples provided, we’ve explored basic to advanced scenarios, highlighting Pandas’ flexibility and power in data analysis and manipulation. Understanding how to group data and apply custom aggregation functions can significantly enhance your data analysis workflows.