Pandas – DataFrame.cumprod() method (4 examples)

Updated: February 20, 2024 By: Guest Contributor Post a comment


The Pandas library in Python is a powerhouse tool for data analysis and manipulation. Among its many features is the DataFrame.cumprod() method, an essential instrument for performing cumulative product calculations across DataFrame rows or columns. This tutorial will explore the cumprod() method through four progressive examples, starting from the basics and advancing to more complex use cases.

Syntax & Parameters

The cumprod() method calculates the cumulative product of DataFrame elements along a specified axis. The syntax is straightforward:

DataFrame.cumprod(axis=None, skipna=True)


  • axis determines the direction of computation. 0 or 'index' applies the function down the rows, while 1 or 'columns' applies it across columns.
  • skipna indicates whether to exclude NA/null values from the calculation. True by default.

Example 1: Basic Cumulative Product Calculation

Let’s start with the basics. We’ll create a simple DataFrame and use cumprod() to compute the cumulative product of its elements.

import pandas as pd

# Creating a simple DataFrame
data = {'A': [1, 2, 3], 'B': [4, 5, 6]}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)

# Compute cumulative product
cumprod_df = df.cumprod()


   A    B
0  1    4
1  2   20
2  6  120

This output demonstrates how cumprod() multiplies each element by the product of all preceding elements in its column.

Example 2: Excluding NA Values

Handling missing data is crucial in real-world datasets. This example shows how cumprod() behaves when encountering NA values.

import numpy as np

# Creating a DataFrame with NA values
data = {'A': [1, np.nan, 3], 'B': [4, 5, np.nan]}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)

# Compute cumulative product without excluding NA
cumprod_incl_na = df.cumprod(skipna=False)
# Compute cumulative product excluding NA
cumprod_excl_na = df.cumprod()

print('Cumulative product including NA:\n', cumprod_incl_na)
print('\nCumulative product excluding NA:\n', cumprod_excl_na)


Cumulative product including NA:
    A    B
0  1.0  4.0
1  NaN  20.0
2  NaN  NaN

Cumulative product excluding NA:
    A    B
0  1.0  4.0
1  1.0  20.0
2  3.0  20.0

This shows the impact of the skipna parameter. Excluding NA values allows the calculation to proceed, albeit with slight adjustments.

Example 3: Cumulative Product Along Rows

While previous examples computed along columns, cumulative product can also be computed across rows. This is particularly useful for row-wise operations.

data = {'A': [1, 2, 3], 'B': [4, 5, 6], 'C': [7, 8, 9]}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)

# Compute cumulative product across rows
cumprod_rows = df.cumprod(axis=1)


   A   B    C
0  1   4   28
1  2  10   80
2  3  18  162

This illustrates the flexibility of cumprod(), enabling computations both vertically and horizontally within a DataFrame.

Example 4: Cumprod with Groupby

Advanced data manipulation often involves grouped calculations. This example demonstrates using cumprod() in conjunction with the groupby() method to perform group-wise cumulative product calculations.

data = {'Group': ['A', 'A', 'B', 'B'], 'Value': [1, 2, 3, 4]}
df = pd.DataFrame(data)

df_grouped = df.groupby('Group')['Value'].cumprod()


0     1
1     2
2     3
3    12
Name: Value, dtype: int64

This method is highly effective for grouped data, providing insights into cumulative product dynamics within subsets of data.


This tutorial explored the versatile cumprod() method in Pandas through various examples. From simple applications to handling missing data, row-wise computations, and group-based operations, cumprod() proves to be an invaluable tool for data analysis. Its intuitive syntax and powerful functionality make it indispensable for performing cumulative product calculations in Python.