TypeScript Error TS2304: Cannot Find Name ‘Require’

Updated: January 8, 2024 By: Guest Contributor Post a comment


In TypeScript development, encountering errors is part of the process that helps you understand and reinforce best practices. One such error is TS2304: cannot find name 'require'. This error often occurs when trying to use CommonJS modules in TypeScript. In this guide, we will explore the reasons behind this error and efficient methods to resolve it.

Reasons Behind TS2304 Error

TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript that compiles down to JavaScript. The ‘require’ keyword is part of the CommonJS specification, which is the standard in Node.js for importing modules. This error surfaces when TypeScript does not recognize ‘require’, because it assumes ES6-style imports by default.

Solution 1: Enable CommonJS Modules

Switching the module system to CommonJS in your TypeScript config is often the quickest fix.

  1. Open the tsconfig.json file in your project’s root directory.
  2. Locate the compilerOptions section.
  3. Change the module value to "commonjs".
  4. Save the file and recompile the project.


    "compilerOptions": {
        "module": "commonjs",

This solution aligns the TypeScript compiler with Node.js’ module system, and typically solves the ‘require’ error. However, if you’re targeting modern modules or need ES6 features, this may not be the best approach.

Solution 2: Use ES6 Imports

Converting your import syntax to ES6 style can circumvent the error if you’re okay with modern syntax.

  1. Identify the CommonJS require statements in your code.
  2. Replace them with the ES6 import syntax: import * as ModuleName from 'module';
  3. Recompile your TypeScript project.


import * as express from 'express';
const app = express();

While this solution may modernize your codebase, it may also necessitate checking compatibility with the target runtime environment. Note that not all third-party modules may support ES6 import syntax.

Solution 3: Install TypeScript Node Types

Installing the appropriate type definitions for Node.js can help TypeScript understand the ‘require’.

  1. Run the command npm install @types/node --save-dev to install Node.js type definitions in your project.
  2. Ensure that your compilation includes the installed types.
  3. Recompile your project to see if the error is fixed.
npm install @types/node --save-dev

This approach allows you to continue using CommonJS syntax and gain additional IntelliSense benefits for Node.js standard library functions. It’s a good solution for those whose projects are deeply integrated with Node.js CommonJS modules. These typings might add some overload due to the size and number of Node.js modules available.


Error TS2304 occurs when TypeScript can’t find the name ‘require’, typically in projects that intermix or exclusively use CommonJS module syntax. By enabling CommonJS in your tsconfig.json, using ES6 imports, or including Node.js types definitions, you can solve this issue. Evaluate your project’s specifications to choose the best approach.